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Örnek ÇevirileriOftalmoloji

Kornea distrofileri, çeşitli bilateral genetik ve enflamatuar olmayan hastalıklardan oluşan bir gruptur. Klinik olarak, bu hastalıklar yüzeysel kornea distrofisi, korneal stromal distrofi ve posterior korneal distrofi olmak üzere üç gruba ayrılır ve bu üç grup da kendi içinde alt kategorilere ayrılır. Maküler kornea distrofisi (MKD), korneal stromal distrofinin bir alt kategorisidir. MKD'den genellikle karbonhidrat (N-asetilglukozamin 6-O) sülfotransferaz 6 (CHST6) genindeki mutasyon sorumludur. Bununla birlikte, tüm MKD vakalarının CHST6 kodlama bölgesindeki mutasyonlarla, yukarı akış bölgesindeki delesyon/yer değiştirmelerle veya birleşme (splays) bölgelerinde splays sinyali kaybıyla sonuçlanan mutasyonlarla açıklanması mümkün değildir.

RP, çeşitli rahatsızlıklara neden olan bir hastalıktır. Bazı hastalar çocukluk döneminde görme kaybı belirtileri gösterirken, diğer hastalar orta yaşa kadar herhangi bir belirti göstermez. Hastaların çoğu, yaşlılıkta karanlığa uyum güçlüğü ve gece körlüğü (niktalopi) ve erken ergenlik döneminde görme kaybı gibi klasik semptomlarla başvurur. Hastalığın ilerlemesiyle, hastalar uzak periferik görüşlerini kaybeder, tünel görüş gelişir ve son olarak genellikle 60 yaş civarında hastalar merkezi görüşlerini kaybeder. Çubuk ve koni fotoreseptörlerindeki azalma, diğer RP bozukluğu türleri arasında benzerdir. Bazı durumlarda, koni reseptörlerdeki azalma çubuk reseptörlerden daha fazladır ve bu durum koni-çubuk dejenerasyonu olarak adlandırılır; koni-çubuk dejenerasyonu ise görme kaybı ve renkli görme kusurlarının baskın başlangıç semptomları olduğu bir RP formudur.

Cornealdystrophies are a group of 1diverse bilateral geneticand non-inflammatory diseases limited to the cornea. 2. Clinically,it is categorized into three groups; , superficialcorneal dystrophy, corneal stromal dystrophy, and posterior corneal dystrophy,which are further subcategorized into other classes.3.Macular corneal dystrophy (MCD) is a subcategory of corneal stromal dystrophies.dystrophy.Mutation in carbohydrate (N-acetylglucosamine6-4acetylglucosamine6-O) sulfotransferase 6 (CHST6) gene is usually responsible for MCD. However, all MCD cases can5cannot be explainedby mutations in the CHST6 coding region, deletion or /replacementin the upstream region, or mutations in splice sites resulting in loss of splicingsignalloss.

RP is adisease witha variety ofthat causes various disorders. Somepatients show symptoms of loss of vision loss duringchildhoodwhile some, whereas others live withoutdo not showany symptoms. until middle age.6Most casespatientspresent classicalwith classicsymptomsof difficulties with, such as difficulty in adapting to darkness and night blindness (niatalopia7 nyctalopia) in oldage andold age as wellas loss of vision in early adolescence. Following theWithdisease progression, they lose their distant peripheral vision, develop 8tunnel vision, and finally lose their central vision,which usually occurs at the agearound 60 years of sixty.age.The reduction of RODin rod and CONE cone issimilar in other types. Sometimes, the decrease in CONEconesis greater than that in RODrods, which is thencalled cone-rodconeroddegeneration, a form of RP in which the loss of vision and defects in colorvision are the predominant initial symptoms.

  1. [Word choice] The word choice enhancement is this case is to improve the technical accuracy of the phrase
  2. [SME] As it is a known fact, the use of this phrase introduces redundancy and hence has been omitted.
  3. [Repetition/ Redundancy] Repetition of words or phrases conveying the same meaning hampers the readability of a sentence. Here, the term “subcategorized” is sufficient to convey the intended meaning.
  4. [Spacing] The format in which the technical term was used in incorrect. It should be “N-acetylglucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferase”
  5. [Mistranslation] The intended meaning was altered in this case
  6. [Omission] Critical information was omitted leading to failure in conveying the authors intended meaning
  7. [Incorrect spelling] The technical term was incorrectly spelled.
  8. [Technical accuracy] Adding “develop” here makes the text better readable and technically sound. The intended meaning is conveyed well.

Cornealdystrophies are a group of 1diverse bilateral geneticand non-inflammatory diseases limited to the cornea. 2. Clinically,itthese diseases isare categorized into three groups; , namely superficial corneal dystrophy, cornealstromal dystrophy, and posterior corneal dystrophy, which these groups 4are further subcategorized into other classes.3. OneMacular cornealdystrophy (MCD) is a subcategory ofcorneal stromal dystrophies.dystrophy is macular corneal dystrophy (MCD),. which is characterizedby bilateral cloudy regions within a hazy stroma, eventually leading to severe visual impairment5. Mutation in the carbohydrate (N-acetylglucosamine6-acetylglucosamine6-6O) sulfotransferase 6 (CHST6) gene is typicallyusuallyresponsible for MCD. However, it is also caused byother factors, and all MCD cases of MCD cancannot7be explained by mutations in the CHST6 coding region, deletion or /replacementin the upstream region, or mutations in splice sites resultingthat result inloss of splicingsignalloss.

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a disease with a variety ofthat causes various disorders. Some patients show symptoms of loss of visionloss duringchildhoodwhile some, whereas others live withoutdo not showany symptoms. until middle age.8Most casespatientspresent classicalwith classicsymptomsof difficulties with, such asnight blindness (nyctalopia) and9 difficulty in adaptingto darkness and night blindness (niatalopia nyctalopia)in oldage andold age as well asand10 loss of vision in early adolescence. Following theWith advanced disease progression, theypatientslose their distant peripheral vision, develop 11tunnel vision, and finally lose their central vision,which usually occurs at the agearound 60 years of sixty.12age.The reduction of RODin rod and CONE cone photoreceptors is similar amongin othertypes. of RP disorders.14 Sometimes,the decrease in CONEcones13 is greaterthan that in RODrods,which is then called cone-rodcone-rod15degeneration, a form of RP in which the lossof vision and defects in color vision are the predominant initial symptoms.           

  1. [Word choice] The word choice enhancement is this case is to improve the technical accuracy of the phrase
  2. [SME] As it is a known fact, the use of this phrase introduces redundancy and hence has been omitted.
  3. [Repetition/ Redundancy] Repetition of words or phrases conveying the same meaning hampers the readability of a sentence. Here, the term “subcategorized” is sufficient to convey the intended meaning.
  4. [Sub-Verb agreement] Plural pronouns take the place of plural nouns. At this instance, the pronoun “it” is singular; however, “corneal dystrophies” is a plural term, thereby requiring a plural pronoun
  5. [Language] The sentence has been rephrased well to enhance the readability
  6. [Spacing] The format in which the technical term was used in incorrect. It should be “N-acetylglucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferase”
  7. [Mistranslation] The intended meaning was altered in this case
  8. [Omission] Critical information was omitted leading to failure in conveying the authors intended meaning
  9. [Incorrect spelling] The technical term was incorrectly spelled.
  10. [Clarity] The sentence has been rephrased and restructured well to enhance readability and clarity
  11. [Technical accuracy] Adding “develop” here makes the text better readable and technically sound. The intended meaning is conveyed well.
  12. [Language] When a sentence involves multiple components separated by commas, each component must possess the correct verb. In this case, the verb “lose” is not applicable to all the three components and the sentence has therefore been revised for accuracy.
  13. [Technical word choice] The complete term is used for better clarity and readability
  14. [Word choice enhancements] The grammatical and word choice enhancement ensure more emphasis and make the sentence complete
  15. [Punctuation] The en dash (–) is often used instead of the hyphen (-) to indicate two things of equal importance (rods and cones have equal importance even if the degeneration varies here).

Corneal dystrophies are a group of diverse bilateral genetic and non-inflammatory diseases. Clinically, these diseases are categorized into three groups, namely superficial corneal dystrophy, corneal stromal dystrophy, and posterior corneal dystrophy; these groups are further subcategorized. One subcategory of corneal stromal dystrophy is macular corneal dystrophy (MCD), which is characterized by bilateral cloudy regions within a hazy stroma, eventually leading to severe visual impairment. Mutation in the carbohydrate (N-acetylglucosamine 6-O) sulfotransferase 6 (CHST6) gene is typically responsible for MCD. However, it is also caused by other factors, and all cases of MCD cannot be explained by mutations in the CHST6 coding region, deletion/replacement in the upstream region, or mutations in splice sites that result in splicing signal loss.

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a disease that causes various disorders. Some patients show symptoms of loss of vision during childhood, whereas others do not show any symptoms until middle age. Most patients present with classic symptoms such as night blindness (nyctalopia) and difficulty in adapting to darkness in old age and loss of vision in early adolescence. With advanced disease progression, patients lose their distant peripheral vision, develop tunnel vision, and finally lose their central vision, which usually occurs around 60 years of age. The reduction in rod and cone photoreceptors is similar among other types of RP disorders. Sometimes, the decrease in cones is greater than that in rods, which is called cone–rod degeneration, a form of RP in which loss of vision and defects in color vision are the predominant initial symptoms.

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The American Society of Hematology Blood; February 16, 2011 10.56 Gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from children with active hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis Sumegi Janos
American Heart Association Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology; 2009, 29:33-39 7.00 Transient increase in plasma oxidized LDL during the progression of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice Itabe Hiroyuki
Blackwell Publishing Ltd Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics; Volume 28, Issue 10, Pages 1259–1264, November 2008 4.00 The modified glucose clearance test: a novel non-invasive method for differentiating non-erosive reflux disease and erosive oesophagitis Fujinami Haruka

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